When the brain is deprived of sufficient supply of oxygen, it causes brain cell injury. Some cells might just be able to recover but some of it may die. Low oxygen levels in the blood or the reduced flow of oxygen to the brain are the two major causes for oxygen deprivation. This can just happen in various ways like before birth, during birth process, after birth and at times, even during childhood.
Perinatal asphyxia, perinatal encephalopathy, neonatal encephalopathy or birth asphyxia are actually some of the alternate diagnosis for this condition. There are two stages for the HIE injury; one of which is the immediately after oxygen deprivation and two, it can take place as normal oxygenated blood circulation resumes to the brain. Fact is, this is also called as reperfusion injury by experts at aim2bbest.com which could happen because the toxins are released from the damaged cells.
There are countless of parents who are still puzzled what and how HIE. On the What part, you may be surprised that there are so many causes for HIE and these include near SIDS events, cardiac arrests, placental blood clots, aneurysm rupture, cord prolapsed, trauma during delivery, extremely low maternal blood pressure, true umbilical knots, placental abruption, uterine rupture, placental insufficiency, shoulder dystocia, cord compression, fetal maternal hemorrhage and maternal blood clotting disorders. Read about hospitals at https://www.britannica.com/topic/hospital.
As for the diagnosis of HIE in newborn baby, this is carried out by using several diagnostic tools and among which is the Sarnat Scale. This is basically based on how the baby looks like after injury or birth or presentation at hospital. In addition to that, it can be diagnosed as well through imaging similar to MRI, ultrasound and EEG while other health experts are checking for cord blood gas levels.
Before devising a treatment plan for HIE, it will be necessary to know some criteria first. But most of the time, it has revealed to reduce disability and death to do cooling or therapeutic hypothermia. You may find it hard to believe one of the most popular and most suggested is the cooling treatment. While this is just the most popular, please be aware that there are many different kinds of treatments used globally.
As for the therapeutic hypothermia, it can be done on the entire body or via the cooling cap that’s placed on the head. While the newborn is on their recovery period, they may be given with other medical intervention to support organs.
On the other hand, the ratio of babies affected by HIE annually is around 2 to 3 in every 1000 full term births. Here are the Advances in Management.